book > preface
In 2000 the Dutch Vacuum Society NEVAC published our ‘Basisboek Vacuümtechniek’ for the benefit of the vacuum technology courses offered under the auspices of NEVAC. The content not only successfully supported lectures on vacuum technology at universities and colleges, but also provided a solution for the need of an extended Dutch-language reference work. Without exaggeration we may state that the book has since become a standard work in the fields of vacuum physics and technology. After two reprints in 2003 and 2008, it is justified to speak of a “Dutch bestseller”. This was not unexpected, because the book contains a wealth of information presented in a clear and concise way.
As Dutch universities and high-tech industries are more and more populated by PhD students in physics and chemistry from foreign countries and highly skilled foreign employees, the requirement of an English translation arose. In addition, there was a growing call from home and abroad to produce an English language book suited for world-wide distribution. Thus, the seed of an idea for a translation was born. The subsequent road map to the English version of our book was however a long and difficult one. Not only did the translation of such a specialist technical work give several expected and unexpected problems for Dutch authors, but, in addition, after more than a decennium the book needed a serious revision and update. For example, recent developments in vacuum pump design in answer to demanding physical problems, like within the semiconductor manufacturing industry, were missing. Furthermore, substantial updates were necessary in the field of (partial) pressure measurement, leak detection and cleaning and working discipline.
As a result, the English version presented here covers all the currently relevant vacuum topics and can really be classified as a contemporary book in the field of vacuum physics and technology.
In order to get an impression of how the book has been updated to current state of the art, a brief overview is given of the main innovations with respect to the Dutch version of 2000.
The large chapter 4 about pumps and pumping systems contains some major changes and significant innovations with respect to the Dutch book. In summary, we added a separate paragraph about various forms of compression. Furthermore, the chapter is extended with attention to the multi-stage Roots pump, which in the past decade has rapidly developed into a valuable alternative to the claw pump and is able to discharge to atmospheric pressure. In the paragraph about the claw pump, new insights are incorporated about the use of an integrated combination of Roots and claw stages. Concerning the screw pump, attention is paid to the tapered pitch as a solution to reduce the heat generated by isochoric compression. The section ‘Molecular pumps’ is extended with a paragraph on the molecular drag pump (MDP)/side channel pump combination, consisting of a Holweck type molecular drag pump and multiple stage miniature type of side channel blower. This pump combination also appears to be able to discharge against atmospheric pressure. The required knowledge regarding the side channel blower is added as a separate paragraph to the section ‘Dry rotary pumps’. The section ‘Sputter-ion pumps’ is supplemented with information on the so-called ‘Galaxy’ and ‘StarCell’ cathode structures to increase the pumping speed for noble gases.
Chapter 5, which deals with total pressure measurement, is extended with the quartz crystal friction pressure gauge and a Bourdon variant with electronic readout.
In the overview on ion sources in chapter 6, about partial pressure measurement and gas analysis, the axial and gas tight ion sources are added. The section on the quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) is provided with a short piece about a special focusing method whereby electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) can be identified and suppressed. Furthermore, the chapter includes a section on the autoresonant trap mass spectrometer (ARTMS). The expectation is that this residual gas analyzer (RGA) is going to be a serious competitor of the QMS in the pressure range 10-3 – 10-9 Pa. The set-up of the section ‘spectrum analysis’ has changed substantially, while error rates get more attention.
The layout of chapter 8, about leak detection, has been completely revised. As concerned to helium leak detectors, the emphasis has moved to the counterflow principle. The maximum achievable sensitivity of counterflow leak detectors has become comparable with that of main flow detectors in the past decade. This circumstance, added to the user-friendliness of counterflow detectors, has now meant that main flow detectors are no longer commercially available. Two inside-out leak detection methods are added, namely the atmosphere method and the bombing method. In a separate paragraph a quantitative analysis of the sensitivities of both methods and their usefulness in specific circumstances is discussed. The arsenal of available leak detection instruments has been extended with multigas sniffer systems (e.g. infrared leak detector), the hydrogen leak detector and the quartz window sensor.
In Chapter 10, about material selection, lubrication, cleaning and working discipline, the section ‘Cleaning procedures’ has been adapted to the changed views in this area and more focused on complete vacuum systems.
By keeping the overall framework of the Dutch book, the volume can not only be considered as an excellent reference book, but is also a unique double-level textbook for both high and middle graduates. Text meant for high graduates is placed behind margin lines. Omitting this text gives a textbook for middle graduates. Both with and without the margin texts the volume shows the desired internal coherence for the associated training level. Several chapters are provided with exercises, divided in two levels of difficulty. Exercises with/without asterisk are appropriate respectively for high and middle graduates. Answers have been added at the end of the book.
The authors are indebted to Dick van Langeveld for his valuable contribution to the new set-up of the section on spectrum analysis in chapter 6, useful discussions on various relevant topics (piezo electricity, equations of motion of the quartz crystal in a quartz crystal friction gauge) and initiating useful contacts of various kinds. Our thanks also goes to Dr Masahiro Hirata (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan) for useful email correspondence concerning the physics of a quartz crystal friction gauge. We express our gratitude to Harold Zandvliet (University Twente, Enschede, NL) for critically reading section 8.9.2 dealing with the hydrogen leak detector. His comments have contributed significantly to our understanding of the physics of this detector. We are very grateful to Norbert Koster (TNO Science and Industry, Semiconductor Equipment, Delft, NL) and Peter van der Heijden (VDL Enabling Technologies Group, Eindhoven, NL) for their contributions to the update of the section on cleaning in chapter 10. For incorporating the ceramic bead blasting cleaning technique in chapter 10, the information in the prospectus ‘Ceramic bead blasting of stainless steel’ from Vecom, a company based in Maassluis, NL, was very helpful to us.
We wish in addition express our gratitude to several representatives of vacuum companies for their permission to reproduce many illustrations and/or their substantial comments on a number of relevant parts of the text: Dr Falk Braunschweig, Dr Armin Conrad, Mark Fierloos, Pieter Heidema and Ron van Vossen (Pfeiffer Vacuum), Dr Sherm Rutherford (Duniway Stockroom Corporation), Harry Nagel and David Schijve (Edwards Vacuum), Sjors Kruidenberg (Elmo-Rietschle), Werner Große Bley (Inficon), Dirk Pootjes (Demaco – Granville Pillips) and Joost Hommel (Paroscientific). Gratitude is also expressed to those who have contributed to the content without specific reference or acknowledgement.
Special thanks are due to Sam Jimenez for his excellent book review. He really has managed, using his own words, “To aim for language that is grammatically 100% correct but which sounds slightly international, which is what I tend to find when I read published literature from non-native speakers. It could always be rewritten in more depth to make it sound like it was completely written by a British English speaker but I think that it would take away from the fact that it is a collection of Dutch expertise”. This wise view and all his help as a reviewer have undoubtedly contributed to the confidence of the authors in their aim to come to a valuable English translation of their Dutch book.
Thanks also to ‘Graphic Design Sjoukje Ziel’ for professional conversion of the cover layout of our Dutch book into that of the English version.
‘Vacuum Science and Technology’ is a joint publication of ‘The High Tech Institute’ (professional education in high tech and leadership) and ‘Settels Savenije Group of Companies’ (innovation projects), Eindhoven, The Netherlands. The authors wish to express their appreciation to John Settels and René Raaijmakers, the managing directors, for making this possible.
Peize (NL) Bert Suurmeijer
Harmelen (NL) Theo Mulder
Kockengen (NL) Jan Verhoeven